Energy Storage/ Fuel Cells Applications

A few years ago, unused renewable energy was wasted and unable to be stored. Today, renewable energy is being directed into various types of storage batteries that contain ZOLTEK products. Imagine a world where a battery can be fully charged and discharged tens of thousands of times without system degradation. ZOLTEK carbon fiber materials can and have been used to bring this reality to live. The use of carbon fiber in energy storage applications overcomes standard challenges associated with the industry. The inability for a battery designer to separate the power and energy function in a battery system or the inherent charge/discharge cycle degradation problem are no match for the properties of carbon fiber.

Additionally, carbonized and graphitized felts, produced from ZOLTEK materials, can be used to store energy generated by wind turbines and solar panels. Energy storage allows utilities to supply needed power and energy when the electrical grid requires it, not just when the sun is shining and the wind is blowing. Carbon fiber is a key component of the move towards alternative energy generation.

Carbon fiber based energy storage solutions balance power and energy output with utility grid demand and allow for energy generation and transmission optimization. ZOLTEK’s engineers and industry partners can assist our customers with design concepts to bring energy storage projects to reality.


A few fast facts:

  • Many chemical batteries utilize carbon fiber in the forms of graphitized felt and paper to use as membranes separating conductive solutions and bipolar carbon plates.
  • Carbon Fiber materials make up approximately 7% of battery capital costs
  • ZOLTEK OX Fibers are used in several companies batteries after being graphitized by 3rd party intermediary companies

Energy Storage/ Fuel Cells Products

OX Staple Fiber

ZOLTEK OX Staple Fiber is the raw material for the electrodes in the RFB’s cell stack. OX Staple is converted to a nonwoven felt, carbonized, graphitized and post-treated to serve as the porous electrodes, through which the electrolytes flow.


The unique and intentionally designed properties of our ZOLTEK felts are optimal for complex thermal, corrosive or conductive applications.